Using trace bind

    The trace bind gadget is used to stream socket binding syscalls.

    How to use it?

    First, we need to create one pod for us to play with:

    $ kubectl run test-pod --image busybox:latest sleep inf

    You can now use the gadget, but output will be empty:

    $ kubectl gadget trace bind
    NODE             NAMESPACE        POD              CONTAINER        PID    COMM             PROTO  ADDR             PORT   OPTS   IF

    Indeed, it is waiting for socket binding to occur. So, in another terminal, exec the container and use nc:

    $ kubectl exec -ti test-pod -- nc -l -p 4242 -w 1
    nc: timeout
    command terminated with exit code 1

    Go back to the first terminal and see:

    NODE             NAMESPACE        POD              CONTAINER        PID    COMM             PROTO  ADDR             PORT   OPTS   IF
    minikube         default          test-pod         test-pod         58208  nc               IP     ::               4242   .R...  0

    This line corresponds to the socket binding operation initiated by nc.

    Restricting output to certain PID, ports or succeeded and failed port bindings

    With the following options, you can restrict the output:

    • --pid only prints events where socket binding is done by the given PID.
    • -P/--ports only prints events where these ports are used for socket bindings.
    • -i/--ignore-errors only prints events where the bind succeeded.

    So, this command will print all (i.e. succeeded and failed) attempts to bind a socket on port 4242 or 4343 by PID 42:

    $ kubectl gadget trace bind -i=false --pid 42 -P=4242,4343

    Only print some information

    You can customize the information printed using -o custom-columns=column0,...,columnN. This command will only show the PID and command of the process which sent a signal:

    $ kubectl gadget trace bind -o custom-columns=pid,comm
    PID    COMM
    61198  nc

    The following command is the same as default printing:

    $ kubectl gadget trace bind -o custom-columns=node,namespace,container,pod,pid,proto,addr,port,opts,if
    NODE             NAMESPACE        CONTAINER        POD              PID    PROTO  ADDR             PORT   OPTS   IF
    minikube         default          test-pod         test-pod         61985  IP     ::               4242   .R...  0

    Use JSON output

    This gadget supports JSON output, for this simply use -o json:

    $ kubectl gadget trace bind -o json
    # You can use jq to make the output easier to read:
    $ kubectl gadget trace bind -o json | jq
      "type": "normal",
      "node": "minikube",
      "namespace": "default",
      "pod": "test-pod",
      "container": "test-pod",
      "pid": 62232,
      "comm": "nc",
      "proto": "IP",
      "addr": "::",
      "port": 4343,
      "opts": ".R...",
      "if": "0",
      "mountnsid": 4026532579

    Clean everything

    Congratulations! You reached the end of this guide! You can now delete the pod you created:

    $ kubectl delete pod test-pod
    pod "test-pod" deleted